 # String to Integer (atoi)

#1

Implement `atoi` which converts a string to an integer.

The function first discards as many whitespace characters as necessary until the first non-whitespace character is found. Then, starting from this character, takes an optional initial plus or minus sign followed by as many numerical digits as possible, and interprets them as a numerical value.

The string can contain additional characters after those that form the integral number, which are ignored and have no effect on the behavior of this function.

If the first sequence of non-whitespace characters in str is not a valid integral number, or if no such sequence exists because either str is empty or it contains only whitespace characters, no conversion is performed.

If no valid conversion could be performed, a zero value is returned.

Note:

• Only the space character `' '` is considered as whitespace character.
• Assume we are dealing with an environment which could only store integers within the 32-bit signed integer range: [−231,  231 − 1]. If the numerical value is out of the range of representable values, INT_MAX (231 − 1) or INT_MIN (−231) is returned.

Example 1:

```Input: "42"
Output: 42
```

Example 2:

```Input: "   -42"
Output: -42
Explanation: The first non-whitespace character is '-', which is the minus sign.
Then take as many numerical digits as possible, which gets 42.
```

Example 3:

```Input: "4193 with words"
Output: 4193
Explanation: Conversion stops at digit '3' as the next character is not a numerical digit.
```

Example 4:

```Input: "words and 987"
Output: 0
Explanation: The first non-whitespace character is 'w', which is not a numerical
digit or a +/- sign. Therefore no valid conversion could be performed.```

Example 5:

```Input: "-91283472332"
Output: -2147483648
Explanation: The number "-91283472332" is out of the range of a 32-bit signed integer.
Thefore INT_MIN (−231) is returned.```

#2

The solution here mostly involves checking all kinds of corner cases, like white spaces, sign, non number characters etc. Below is a solution in Go which beats 100% of the submissions and runs in 4 ms.

``````func myAtoi(str string) int {
if len(str) == 0{
return 0
}

sign := 1
i := 0

for _, ch := range str {
if ch == ' '{
i++
} else {
break
}
}

str = str[i:] //removing the white spaces at the start
if len(str) == 0{
return 0
}

if str == '-' {
sign = -1
str = str[1:] //removing the sign
} else if str == '+' {
str = str[1:] //removing the sign
}

sum := 0
for _, val := range str{
if val >= '0' && val <= '9'{
sum = sum * 10 + int(val - '0')
// check for overflow or underflow
if sum * sign < math.MinInt32  {
return math.MinInt32
} else if sum * sign > math.MaxInt32 {
return math.MaxInt32
}
} else {
break
}

}

// assign the sign
sum = sum * sign

return sum
}
`````````

#3

Similar to the above code, but in Java.

``````class Solution {
public int myAtoi(String str) {
if(str==null || str.length()==0) return 0;
char[] num = str.toCharArray();
int sign = 1, i = 0, len = num.length;
long result = 0;
while(i<len && num[i]==' ') i++;
if(i==len) return 0;

if(num[i]=='-'){
sign = -1;
i++;
} else if(num[i]=='+') i++;

while(i<len){
if(!(num[i]>='0' && num[i]<='9')) break;
result = result*10 + (long) num[i]-'0';
if(result * sign > Integer.MAX_VALUE) return Integer.MAX_VALUE;
if(result * sign < Integer.MIN_VALUE) return Integer.MIN_VALUE;
i++;
}

return (int) result * sign;
}
}
``````